Under Scientific management, the management is responsible for determining the task for every employee which he performed in standardized working conditions. The standard work may be determined through proper investigation and taking into account average worker abilities.

According to Taylor, the best way of doing the work is that which requires least movement, cost and time. The best way of doing work can be determined by following studies:

work study

Method Study

Under this study the best method of doing the job is to found out that will incur minimum cost and gives maximum benefit. There is detailed study of whole process of production to make improvements in material handling, transportation, inspection, storage etc. The objective of this study is to minimize the cost of production and maximize the quality and customer satisfaction.

Example: For production of shoes, there can be labor intensive method and machine intensive method. To find out which is best, management must evaluate the cost of production with both the methods and compare both the methods with the available resources of the company. The method which involves minimum cost and exploits maximum resources must be selected as the best method of production.

Ford Motors used this technique very successfully.

Time Study

The technique of time study involves determination of:

  • The standard time required to perform the job.
  • Setting up the target for workers.
  • Determining the number of workers required to perform a job.
  • Categorizing the workers in efficient and inefficient categories.

Taylor suggested that to set the standard time, the speed of an average worker should be observed for repeated times. Keeping the observed time in mind, the standard time should be set up.

Motion Study

This scientific technique is conducted with the objectives of:      

  • To determine the movements of workers when they are performing the job.
  • To differentiate the productive and unproductive movements.
  • For cutting down or eliminating the unproductive movements.
  • To design the suitable equipment and tools to minimize the unproductive movement of workers.

Motion study is conducted before the time study. Both studies help in determining the best method of doing a job and standard time allowed for it.

Example: While observing an average worker, if it is observed that worker has to bend frequently to pick up the tools from the tool box placed under his table, then a stool can be placed near his seat to keep the tool box over it so that worker does not waste his energy in bending again and again. Same energy he can use for improving his production capacity or efficiency level.

Fatigue Study

Fatigue means tiredness. The fatigue study is conducted with the aim to determine:

  • The frequency of rest intervals.
  • The duration of rest intervals.
  • The number of rest intervals.

A person is bound to get tired when he is performing the job for a longer period of time. There is always a need for rest interval. Taylor suggested that an average worker should be observed frequently. His efficiency levels when starts declining should be noted and on this basis rest intervals should be decided upon.

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Author: commerceiets
Educator (Masters of Commerce, Bachelor of Commerce)

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